The properties expected from spring steels are the ability to deform in elastic area under load and return to its original form once the load is removed. At this point, springiness of the steel material used for manufacturing of springs is important. In spring steels, springiness of the material used for manufacturing of various springs is important. Spring steels are the steel materials used for spring manufacture.
The steel materials used for manufacturing of springs may be available in the form of workloads under working conditions such as drawing, compressing and twisting (inverting). Typical examples for springs based on load types may be listed as follows: leaf springs that are forced by twisting, twistable springs, helical springs that are forced to draw and compress, spring washers that are twist-forced, inverted springs, stabilizers.
Springs steels made from high-quality steels are classified by alloy elements:
- Silicon (38Si7, 46Si7, 51Si7, 65Si7)
- Silicon-chromium (60Si Cr7)
- Silicon-manganese (60SiMn5)
Spring steels made from primal steels are classified by alloy elements:
- Silicon (66Si7)
- Chromium (55Cr3)
- Silicon – Vanadium 50CrV4 and 58CrV4)
- Chromium – Molybdenum – Vanadium (51CrMoV4)
On the other hand, some steels, especially those with a thin cross section, are classified by cold winding, while those with thick cross sections are classified by hot winding. The C percentage of cold springs are relatively high, coupled with surface smoothness, and are often heat treated. Warm-wound springs have larger cross sections and definitely have hardening properties.